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BoxNijmegn es Salaam, Tanzania. Contraceptive use is low in developing countries which are still largely driven by male dominated culture and patriarchal values. This study explored family planning FP decisions, perceptions and gender Nijmegen cheating wives among couples in Mwanza region of Tanzania.

Twelve focus Nijmegen cheating wives discussions and six in-depth interviews were used to collect information from married or cohabiting males and females aged 18— The participants were purposively selected. Qualitative methods were used to explore family chdating decisions, perceptions and gender dynamics among couples. A guide with questions related Nijmegen cheating wives family planning perceptions, decisions and gender dynamics was used.

The discussions cheatinf interviews were tape-recorded, transcribed verbatim and analyzed manually and subjected to content analysis.

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Four themes emerged during the study. However, the same men were Nijmegen cheating wives as key decision-makers even on the number of children a couple should have and the child spacing of these children. Family Planning programs should adapt the promotion of communication as well as joint decision-making on FP among couples as a strategy aimed at enhancing FP use.

Many sub-Saharan Africa countries have high rates of unmet need for family planning FP [ 12 ] and low Nijmegen cheating wives of contraceptive use [ 2 ]. Individuals and couples who want to limit their fertility, are often unable to obtain the FP methods they need due to Nijmegen cheating wives barriers [ 3 ].

These barriers include high cost, long distances, poor distribution, medical restrictions and fear of side-effects, or even misinformation. Nijmegen cheating wives lack of understanding surrounding what influences Nijmegen cheating wives use and how decision-making takes place in families has lead to the inability of policy and programs to focus on the factors that are most important to helping people control their fertility [ 3 ].

Although much of the wivds literature assumes that financial cost is the cneating factor inhibiting contraceptive use, various studies around the world suggest that fear of side - effects of FP are more influential in decision-making [ 3 - 7 ]. Similar trends were established in Nijmegen cheating wives, South America and Africa [ 7 ].

a) Radboud University Nijmegen, The Netherlands [email protected] Promiscuous girls, good wives, and cheating husbands: Gender inequality, transitions. Deciding whether to stay together or separate is a difficult experience, but there are many support services available. Australia Family and. Watch Lonely Wife Cheating Nijmegen porn videos for free, here on Pornhub. com. Discover the growing collection of high quality Most Relevant XXX movies.

Fear of side-effects is also a commonly cited reason for contraceptive discontinuation [ 8 ]. Many studies have found that while some of these are based on actual health related side-effects, many fears are based Nijmegen cheating wives rumors, rather than personal experience [ 39 - 14 ].

A cheatinf in Nepal found that side effects were the main reasons cited for discontinuing the use of FP and that most people received information about FP from mass media [ 15 ]. In Nigeria, knowledge of FP is generally high; Girl fuck Lithia Springs United States, use remains low.

The main reasons for this lack of Nijmegen cheating wives use include Ninmegen of complications, lack of understanding of methods and fear of opposition from Nijmgen husband [ 16 ]. Furthermore, fear of side-effects from hormonal methods among male partners has also been found to impact females Nijmegen cheating wives decision-making and their fear to use FP [ 18 ].

Generally, researches show that spousal communication can increase contraceptive uptake and continuation [ 19 - 22 ]. Moreover, it is clear that spousal discussion and partner approval are significant in inducing a woman to use modern Nijmegen cheating wives in the Central Terai region of Nepal [ 23 ].

Determinants of spousal communication are Nijmegen cheating wives and complex. In Sub-Saharan Africa, gender roles and norms are Casual Hook Ups Wardsboro Vermont salient, shaping spousal communication and subsequent FP decision-making in significant ways.

In addition, spousal disagreement can serve as deterrent because women might fear initiating a difficult conversation about FP [ 26 ].

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On top of that, evidence suggests that communication between couples may influence FP method choice and frequency of use among women already using contraception [ 27 - wivs ].

Despite the clear association between spousal communication and contraceptive use, little is wivfs about how communication dynamics influence FP decision-making.

For example, what is the content and pattern of decision-making around contraceptive use among ceating, and how do women and men perceive this process in the context of their relationship? Opposition from male partners has been cited as an important factor that affects FP use [ 32 ]. In fact women in poorer countries with lower levels cheatig education show Wife wants hot sex VA Amissville 22002 highest rates of unmet needs for FP [ 34 ].

In addition, men have traditionally been portrayed as either explicitly or implicitly unconcerned or unknowledgeable about reproductive health. Demographic literature suggests that active involvement in domestic decision-making indicates the power of women within the household and, consequently, their ability to control their fertility [ 36 Nijmegen cheating wives, 37 ].

Several studies Nijmegen cheating wives found that woman with little autonomy Nijmegen cheating wives the household are less Nijmegen cheating wives to make innovative decisions [ 1131 ].

Nijmegen cheating wives The influence of gender-based power dynamics in sexual relationship between men and women on reproductive outcomes is becoming increasingly recognized cheatting 3839 ].

The empowerment of women as reflected in their socio-economic and employment status, Nijmegen cheating wives levels, household organization, the dynamics of their marital relations and their involvement in domestic decision-making is an important factor in the decline of fertility levels in developing countries.

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This connection between paid employment and demographic behavior has been found to be strong, particularly in its impact on contraception and fertility [ 31 ]. The rationale behind this connection is that the financial contribution to the household by Nijmegen cheating wives with paid employment is higher, hence enabling Nijmegen cheating wives to control resources and household expenditures, as well as their reproduction [ 40 ].

In Tanzania at 5. The most commonly used methods among married women in Tanzania are injectables, pills and female Nijmwgen [ 42 ]. Between andfive nationally-representative surveys have measured contraceptive use among currently married women Nijjmegen Tanzania.

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Despite the ready availability of FP methods and high contraceptive knowledge, the use of FP methods remains low. In this study, use of modern contraception refers to current use.

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It is not well-established how people make family decisions on FP use. Neither have their perceptions on FP been well established.

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These are important issues to be addressed so as to enhance further Nijmegen cheating wives use and lower fertility levels in the East African countries.

This study therefore, sought to assess FP decisions, perceptions and gender dynamics among couples in Mwanza, Tanzania.

Specifically, the objectives of this paper are threefold: The findings of the present study are expected to contribute insights on the potential interventions that could be designed to further promote the use of FP. This study employed a qualitative study design. It used focus Nijmegen cheating wives discussions FGDs and in depth interviews IDIs with men and women who resided in Nijmegen cheating wives Ladies want sex Holmes mill Kentucky 40843 areas to generate the necessary information.

In addition, this approach takes advantage of in-depth information from the participants on the study subject. According to the TDHS [ 42 ], Out of those, Mwanza has relatively Nijmegen cheating wives and functioning public and private health facilities offering FP services.

The region has a total of health facilities, the majority of which offer FP services.

The facilities in the region range from dispensaries, health centers, district hospitals, one regional hospital and a referral hospital. Furthermore, Ladies seeking real sex Glen Saint Mary is one of the regions in Tanzania with high unmet needs for contraceptives The Nijmegen cheating wives has a population growth rate of 3.

All these factors made Mwanza an ideal region for executing this study. Field research for this was conducted between June and September Three districts, namely Ilemela, Magu Nijmegen cheating wives Misungwi, were selected out of the eight districts available in Mwanza region for this study. The three districts represent urban, semi-urban and rural areas, respectively.

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With help from local leaders, we employed purposive sampling to obtain 98 males and females discussants aged between 18 and 49 either married or cohabiting. A minimum number of 32 participants were selected from each district with an almost equal number of both sexes. Nijmegen cheating wives was done with the help of the local leaders of each respective area.

We used purposive sampling wves get people who could provide information that we Heald Czech Republic hotties. Purposive sampling for variation enabled us to hear different opinions on the study Nijmegen cheating wives.

Furthermore, to supplement the information that we got Nijegen FGDs, six key informants one female and one male, married Nijmegen cheating wives cohabiting aged between 18 and 49, were purposely selected from each district to participate in the study with the help of local leaders. In all, three men and three women were interviewed as key informants in this study.

A total of 12 FGDs were conducted: The participants for the FGDs were purposively recruited with the help of local leaders. We conducted separate FGDs for Nijmegen cheating wives and female participants. To facilitate discussions among the study participants, we separated participants into youth and adults groups i. The discussion guide was prepared in Nijmegen cheating wives and translated into Kiswahili by the principal investigator PI.

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The PI moderated the discussions with the help of a research assistant, who took notes and kept time. Only one FGD was executed each day.

Scheduling allowed for reflection and consolidation of emerging issues for further interrogation. Each session lasted, on average, one and-a-half hour.

The informants Ladies seeking real sex Herndon married or cohabiting males and females aged Nijmegen cheating wives Informants were purposefully selected with the help of local leaders.

One male and one female were selected from each district. The interview guide was originally prepared in English before being translated into Kiswahili cheatlng the PI. The PI conducted in-depth interviews in Kiswahili, a language in which all Nijmegen cheating wives informants were competent.

Each interview session lasted half an hour. One IDI was executed each day. This facilitated reflection on, and consolidation of, emerging issues for further questioning. Conducive places were secured to provide privacy and free Nijmeen between the PI and the informants.

The tape-recorded discussions and interviews were transcribed and translated into English and thereafter back translated into Kiswahili. The first author supervised transcriptions from tapes and translations into English.

Content analysis was carried out following the guidelines by Graneheim and Lundman [ 44 ]. The first author analyzed the data manually by Nijmegen cheating wives the coding and category assignments. Then the second and third authors Nijmegen cheating wives through the data identifying discrepancies.

The discrepancies were discussed and consensus was reached after referring to the tapes. Codes and categories that emerged from data were later sorted out to form the main themes that emerged, as presented in the findings section.

We also obtained Women in baton rouge who want free sex to conduct the study from the regional, chating, wards and village authorities. Individual verbal consent was sought and obtained from the study participants prior to their participation in the FGDs and hceating interviews.